Azure DevOps Interview Questions
Azure DevOps Interview Questions and Answers
- DevOps is a combination of development and operations, it’s a Union of 3Ps – Process, People and Product (working Product) that enable continuous integration and continuous delivery of value to end users.
- It quicken the process to deliver applications and software services at maximum speed and high velocity, so that companies can learn and adapt to the market at its earliest.
- It also minimizes the risk factor by continuously delivering and getting end users and stakeholders feedback at the early stages.
2. Define the need for DevOps?
DevOps is the mixture of cultural philosophies, practices, and tools that increases an organization’s ability to deliver applications and services at high velocity: evolving and enhancing products at a quicker pace than organizations using traditional software development and infrastructure management processes.
3. How DevOps Works?
- It is the practice of operations and development engineers that work together in the entire project lifecycle, from the design and development process to production releases and support.
- The team works together to achieve the desired goal starting from design and development to testing automation and from continuous integration to continuous delivery.
- People with both development and operations skill sets work together and use various tools for CI-CD and Monitoring to respond quickly to customer’s need and fix issues and bugs.
4. Define the benefits of DevOps?
Here are the main benefits of implementing DevOps:
- Customer Satisfaction.
- More engaged and Collaborative Development and Operation teams.
- DevOps Deploy code faster in the market through Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery.
- Faster Operational Support.
- Strong Infrastructure Performance and IT performance.
- Less failures and continuous improvement.
- Transparency between the team.
- Constant Monitoring and better adaption.
- Increase efficiency
5. Which DevOps tools are available?
Automation plays a major role to Implement DevOps and we definitely need some tools for Implementation. Here are the major areas:
- Code management
- Build and Testing
- Release management
- Deploy and Monitor
Following is a list of tools that can help you meet your DevOps requirements perfectly.
6. Which are the tools useful for Continuous Integration?
Azure Pipelines has support for all the platforms like Linux, macOS, and Windows. These are the following tools for Continuous Integration.
- Travis CI
- GitLab CI
7. Which are the tools useful for Continuous Deployment?
Here are few useful Continuous Deployment tools –
- Azure Pipelines for Deployment.
- Octopus Deploy.
- AWS CodeDeploy.
8. What is Infrastructure Configuration? Which tools are useful for Infrastructure Configuration?
Many companies demand a faster deployment process and Infrastructure Configuration in today’s fast and competitive market so treating Infrastructure as software and manage the processes such as –
- Version Control
- Continuous Integration
- Automated Testing will make infrastructure changes more rapidly and reliably.
The most popular tools for Infrastructure Configuration are –
9. Define Continuous Testing? What is the use of Test Automation in DevOps?
- DevOps is about people, culture and automation; it’s not about jobs or tools.
- Continuous testing plays a very important role to implement DevOps.
- Where we write scripts for software testing and make it auto executable so that we can automate the testing and do the frequent releases using the delivery pipelines.
- To achieve Continuous Testing we have to write unit testing.
10. Define the useful tools for Continuous Testing?
For test Automation there are many open source tools are available, following are few names –
- Tricentis Tosca
11. Define Continuous Monitoring?
- DevOps and Agile are all about inspection and adaption and we must have to monitor continuously the process, application performance and infrastructure to make continuous improvement in our process.
- We can visualize the process and get the early alerts in real time by doing continuous infatuation monitoring.
- We can take decision wisely and adapt the things and process that best suits for the business by analyzing that data.
12. Which are the tools useful for Continuous Monitoring?
- Nagios, SysDig and Zabbix are the famous open source tools available in the market for continuous monitoring.
- Infrastructure as code(laC) vendors like Amazon and Google have tools like AWS CloudWatch and StackDriver.
- New Relic is also a good option for continuous monitoring.
13. Define the container and What containers Azure DevOps support?
- The container will provide a way to package your software code, its configurations, Packages and its dependencies into a single unit or object.
- We can have multiple containers that can run on the same machine and share the operating system with other containers so that we can run anywhere fast and reliable and consistent deployments.
- Azure DevOps has the following container support.
- Asp.Net with containers.
- Azure Kubernetes services.
- Azure Service Fabric application with Docker support.
14. Define the difference between Azure DevOps and VSTS Online?
- Azure DevOps was previously known as Microsoft Visual Studio Team Services, having an excellent application lifecycle management tool.
- By implementing Continuous Instigation and Continuous Deployment, We can plan a project with Agile tools and templates to manage and run test plans, Version control source code and manage the branches, deploy the solution across all platform using Azure Pipelines.
15. Which are the services provided by Azure DevOps?
The services provided by Azure DevOps full application lifecycle management from planning to coding, and from testing to build and deploy.
16. What are the famous tools of DevOps ?
- Travis CI
17. What are the various phases of DevOps ?
The below given are the different phases of DevOps
- Plan: It is essential for any application which requires development, preparing a plan for the process of development is the best practice.
- Code: The code of the application is designed according to the needs of users.
- Build: with the help of different codes that are generated in earlier steps, the build of the application is created.
- Test: Test plays an essential role in the development of the IT application, which helps to test the application and it re-built the application when required.
- Integrate: Integrate is used to collaborate the various codes, which are from multiple programers.
- Deploy: Deploy helps for the future use by forming the environment of the cloud from the deployed codes, and it maintains continuous functioning even though the new changes take place in the website with a high traffic.
- Operate: When it is necessary operations take place on code.
- Monitor: For the customer’s needs, the performance of the application is monitored.
18. Explain the advantages of Azure DevOps ?
Below mentioned are some important advantages of the Azure DevOps –
- It delivers the software continuously.
- It simply solves the problems which are complex.
- It identifies the problems quickly and solves them with high speed.
- It is also used for quick features transport.
- It maintains the secured operating environment.
- It is used to develop the collaboration of the various teams
19. Define Azure DevOps ?
- Azure DevOps is used for the project planning by using the templates and the tools of Azure and it is a new version of Microsoft VSTS.
- Azure DevOps functionality helps to manage and run the plans of the test, it is also used for the solution deployment through various platforms to leverage the pipelines. It provides CI and CD quick deployment.
20. Explain about Azure boards?
- Azure board is a DevOps service and it is used to manage the projects of software, It also offers various sets of abilities like dashboards, reporting, scrum and kanban.
- Its essential feature contains queries, backlogs, sprints, dashboards and work items.
21. What is Azure Repos?
- Azure Repos is a system version control and is used for code management and various versions by using the lifecycle of the development.
- Azure Repos is also used to track the changes for the code through various teams, the clear list of changes may be used for coordination between teams and collaborate the changes for future use.
- One of the essential features of Azure Repos is centralized version control and distributed version control. Git is an example for distributed version control, TFVC is an example for centralized version control.
22. Give a brief about Azure pipelines?
- Azure pipelines is one of the essential azure cloud services.
- We can build and test the projects code automatically using Azure Pipelines.
- With the help of major languages it works productively and types of the project, it shares that project code with other customers also.
23. What are the test plans of Azure?
- They are Azure DevOps services which offer solutions for test management, it offers the essential abilities, exploratory testing, customer testing, planned testing manually.
- It maintains an extensive browser, which offers testing exploration along with stakeholders feedback storage. The essential techniques like testing exploration and manuals are required for the product development, they are the reason for testing automation.
24. What are the important components of azure devops integration and the bit bucket, mention some?
- The answer represents the relation between hosted agent and the service of external Git, its continuous integration and continuous deployment is congruent through Github and the server of Git such as bit bucket.
- It is used for external respiratory connection to get the advantages of its continuous integration and the continuous development, Instead of transforming the complete Gitlab project.
25. Which are the projects of Azure DevOps ?
Project of the azure devops is an essential choice for gaining experience, which is helped for code existence and Git repository to design the continuous delivery and integration pipelines of Azure DevOps.
26. What are the services provided by Azure DevOps ?
- It offers the complete lifecycle management of applications, that is from plan to code, and also from test to build and deployment.
27. What is Azure storage key and its types?
Azure storage key is used for authentication for validating access for the azure storage service to control access of data based on the project requirements. There are two types of storage keys for the authentication purpose –
- Primary Access Key
- Secondary Access Key
28. Mention some useful tools of continuous monitoring ?
- Ipswitch WhatsUp Gold
- Paessler PRTG
- Rapid7 Insight
- Cisco Identity Services Engine
29. Which web application can be deployed with Azure ?
The given below are the web applications, that can be deployed with Azure
30. What are the service is used to manage the Azure resources?
Azure resource manager is the one for resource management, that contains various services like deployment, management etc.
31. What are the features provided by Azure DevOps?
There are many integrated features provided by Azure DevOps that you can use based on your project requirement. You can access these features directly in the browser or IDE.
- Azure Boards to manage the PBIs and Tasks.
- Azure Pipelines for the automation of build pipelines and releases.
- Azure Repos allows you to manage your code versions.
- Azure Test Plans to manage the Test artifacts.
- Azure Artifacts manages the public and private package feeds.
- Azure OnePlan provides the capability for enhanced visibility and alignment of the team working on the project.
32. What are Azure DevOps Services?
There are different services provided by Azure DevOps:
- Azure Boards
- Azure Pipelines
- Azure Repos
- Azure Test Plans
- Azure Artifacts
- Extensions Marketplace
33. Define the antipatterns of DevOps?
When a pattern is accepted by an organization by considering that it is being used by others without determining the requirements of the organization then it turns out to be an anti-pattern. There are various myths around DevOps can lead to antipatterns, they are –
- DevOps is not a culture but a process.
- DevOps is nothing but an Agile approach.
- There must be a distinct DevOps group.
- DevOps resolves every problem.
- DevOps associates to developers operating a production environment.
- DevOps follows Development-driven management
- DevOps does not excessively focus on development.
- DevOps culture cannot be implemented because of the absence of the right set of people.
34. What is the DevOps toolchain?
- DevOps toolchain is formed by a stack of tools. It automates some tasks like the development and deployment of your application. Tasks in DevOps can be carried out manually with easy steps, but the requirement for automation rapidly increases due to the rise in its complexity.
- Toolchain automation is important for continuous delivery. Basically, GitHub a Version Control Repository is recognized as the core component of a DevOps toolchain. In this toolchain, some other tools can be delivery pipelines, backlog tracking, etc
35. What are the different ways Azure DevOps offer to define pipelines?
To create a release pipeline you should have a basic understanding of key concepts such as triggers, stages, tasks, task group, variables, variable groups, build artifacts. Azure DevOps offers two ways to define pipelines they are –
- Using YAML Syntax – We can use a YAML file to create our pipeline that we can version with our rest of code. The YAML file ‘azure-pipeline.yml’ contains all the code changes to build and deploy your infrastructure and application. We can also use YAML Editor in Azure DevOps portal to create our pipeline.
- Using Classic Interface – Azure DevOps offers the capability to create releases using highly configurable and manageable pipelines by Classic User Interface. We can create releases to multiple stages with required approvals and checks using these pipelines.
36. Define a Multi-stage Pipeline?
- Multi-stage Pipeline allows us to define CI, CD or both in our single YAML pipeline code.
- It also offers some benefits such as – It is easy to maintain, we can easily check in which stage our deployment is currently in, etc.
37. Why should we use Azure DevOps Pipelines?
Azure devops pipelines comes with many benefits, such as –
- It provides ability to work with any language or platform
- It provides integration with GitHub
- Using it we can configure Open-Source Projects
- It has the ability to deploy on different type of targets at same time
- It has the integration with Azure Deployments
- It also provide build on Linux, Windows and Mac Machines
38. Define Release in Azure DevOps?
- Releases or Release Pipelines allow us to continuously deliver our software to customers at a faster rate with lower risk.
- Release pipelines provide capability to fully automate the testing and delivery of our software in multiple stages prior to production. We can also control these automated ways by approvals or on-demand deployments.
- Azure DevOps allows us to create release pipelines by navigating to Releases in Pipeline Menu. Once we click on ‘New’ then ‘New Release Pipeline’, It will navigate us to the new release pipeline page where we can specify Build Artifacts, Stages, Pre-deployment conditions, Variables and other Deployment options.
39. Explain the differences between variable and variable groups in Azure DevOps?
- All variables are mutable and stored as strings and it allows us to store some data that can be used across pipelines.
- Variable Groups provide the ability to use variables across multiple pipelines. We can store secrets in variable or variable groups.
40. Explain about the Azure DevOps artifacts?
- Azure Artifacts allows us to create and share npm, NuGet and Maven package feeds from private and public sources with a team.
- It has the capability to manage all types of packages like npm, NuGet, Maven etc.
- We can easily add fully integrated Package management to our Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery CI/CD pipelines with a single click or via ARM functionality.
41. Define the Azure DevOps Test Plans?
Azure Test Plans is a planned and exploratory testing solution to improve code quality and provides three types of test management artifacts in Azure DevOps server that are – Test plans, Test suites and Test cases.
42. Define Puppet?
Puppet is famously known as an open-source configuration management tool. It is utilized for the deployment, configuration, and management of servers. Its working is based on client-server architecture.
In this architecture, the client is an agent whereas the server is recognized as the master. It is found that a puppet agent and master converse via a safely encrypted channel with the assistance of SSL.
43. Explain about Pull Requests in Azure DevOps Repos?
- Pull requests are used to review and merge code to a Git project. It allow your team to review your code and provide feedback on it.
- Pull requests can come from either feature or topic branches in the same repository or from a fork.
44. Define Forks?
- Forks provide a way to isolate confidential, risky and experimental changes from an original codebase. It is a complete new copy of code repository including branches, commits and files.
- It looks like someone cloned a repository and pushed to a new, empty repository.
- Once a Fork is created, we can not share fork files, branches with the original codebase unless pull request carries them along.
45. Brief about the major areas of DevOps tools?
- Automation plays a major role in the implementation of DevOps.
- So, DevOps tools are highly dominant in the areas of planning, code management, building and testing, and release management.
- DevOps tools also have functionalities in deployment and monitoring tasks in the DevOps ecosystem.
46. What is a branching strategy in DevOps?
- Branching is a method implemented for code isolation. It creates a copy of the source code to make two versions that are separately developed. Various kinds of branching are available.
- The DevOps team should make a choice based on application requirements. Correspondingly, the choice is referred to as a branching strategy.
47. Is continuous testing and the ideal DevOps tools for the same?
- DevOps focuses on people, automation, and culture changes; it is not about tools or process improvements. Automated testing through writing scripts to execute the testing process automatically enables frequent releases.
- Many opensource tools for test automation can help in achieving the DevOps objective of continuous testing.
- The notable DevOps tools for continuous testing are Selenium, JMeter, AntUnit, JUnit, SoapUI, and Cucumber.
48. Define the difference between Azure DevOps Services and Azure DevOps Server?
- Azure DevOps Services is the cloud service of Microsoft Azure with a highly scalable, reliable, and globally available hosted service.
- DevOps Server is an on-premises offering, built on a SQL Server back end.
- Enterprises choose the on-premises option when they need their day within their network.
- Another scenario for choosing on-premises involves the need for accessing SQL Server reporting services integrating effectively with Azure DevOps data and tools.
- Both Azure DevOps Services and Azure DevOps Server offer similar basic services, albeit with certain added benefits of the former.
Here are the additional advantages of Azure DevOps Services.
- It has simpler server management.
- Better connectivity with remote sites.
- Faster access to new and productive features.
- Transition in focus from capital expenditures on servers and infrastructure towards operational expenditures on subscriptions.
49. Which are the main factors I should consider for choosing one from Azure DevOps Services and Azure DevOps Server?
The important factors to consider before making the choice of a platform between Azure DevOps Services and Azure DevOps Server are:
- Scope and scale data
- Authentication requirements
- Users and groups
- Management of user access
- Security and data protection precedents
- Process customization
50. Name a few DevOps solution architecture?
Some of the solution architectures you can design with the help of the tools and technologies with Azure are –
- CI/CD for Containers
- Java CI/CD using Jenkins and Azure Web Apps
- Container CI/CD using Jenkins and Kubernetes on Azure Kubernetes Service
- Immutable Infrastructure CI/CD using Jenkins and Terraform on Azure Virtual Architecture
- DevTest image factory
- CI/CD for Azure VMs
- CI/CD for Azure Web Apps
51. What do you know about Azure boards?
- Azure Boards is an Azure DevOps service that helps in the management of work in software projects. It offers a diverse set of capabilities such as customizable dashboards, integrated reporting, and native support for Kanban and Scrum.
- The core features of Azure Boards include work items, boards, backlogs, sprints, dashboards, and queries.
52. How is Selenium used in DevOps?
Selenium is used for continuous testing in DevOps. It specializes in forms of regression and functional testing.
53. Name a few important features of Memcached?
Memcached offers a number of features like:
- CAS Tokens
- Binary protocol
54. What do you mean by the Dogpile effect and how can one prevent it?
Dogpile effect or cache stampede is nothing but the expiry of cache, followed by the website being simultaneously hit by numerous requests. Semaphore lock helps prevent this effect by generating a new value as the cache expires.
55. What do you mean by Continuous Testing? What role does Test Automation play in DevOps?
- DevOps is all about people, culture, and automation. Continuous testing plays a very important role in DevOps.
- Scripts are written for software testing and made auto executable so that testing can be automated and frequent releases are possible using the delivery pipelines.
56. Name some of the useful plugins in Jenkins?
Some of the few useful Jenkins plugins are
- Amazon EC2
- Maven 2 project
- HTML publisher
- Copy artifact
- Green Balls
57. Can Jenkins be moved or copied from one server to another?
- Yes, it is can. Jenkins can be moved or copied from one server to another. When copying Jenkins, it is possible to move the jobs directory from the older server to the new or the current one.
- This enables moving an installation by copying in the corresponding job directory.
58. What should you do to make a NuGet package available to anonymous users outside your organization while minimizing the number of publication points?
- The answer is the introduction of a new feed for the package. Packages that are hosted in Azure Artifacts, find storage in a feed.
- Sharing packages with higher scalability and according to requirements can be ensured by setting up permissions on the feed. These multiple feeds enable control of access to packages across four levels.
- These four levels of access are –
59. How can you facilitate communication between members of the development team working in different locations around the world using Azure DevOps?
- The first criterion would be the isolation of members of different project teams into different communication channels while maintaining the communication history in the concerned channels.
- Effective integration with Azure DevOps is also important for the application and allows you to add external suppliers and contractors to projects.
- Classifying teams allows the creation of different channels by users for the organization of communications according to the topic. Every channel can include upto thousands of users.
- Microsoft Teams provides a guest access feature that allows the invitation of external people to join internal channels for the purpose of meetings, file sharing, and messaging. It helps in B2B project management and can also directly integrate with Azure DevOps.
60. Is there any feature that can be used for the development of a multi-tier application using Azure App Service web apps as the front end and Azure SQL database as the back end?
- The Application Map in Azure Application Insights can be used as it helps in identifying the performance bottlenecks as well as the failure hotspots in different components of multi-tier applications.
- Application components and the related dependencies are represented by the nodes on the map and it is also capable of providing the status for health KPI and alerts.
61. If there are many unused variables and empty catch blocks, what can you do to improve the quality of code ?
- Selecting “Run PMD” in a Maven build task will do the trick. PMD is a source code analyzer that lets you identify common programming errors like unnecessary object creation, unused variables, and empty code blocks.
- An Apache Maven PMD Plugin will automatically run the tool on a project’s source code and the detailed code error results are provided on the site report.
62. What is Pair Programming with reference to DevOps?
- Pair programming is an engineering practice of Extreme Programming Rules. It involves two programmers working on the same system and on the same design or algorithm.
- One programmer can be the driver and the other as the observer and constantly monitor the progress of a project and identify problems. The roles can be removed at any moment without prior intimation.
63. Why should we use Azure boards?
Azure boards should be used as it comes with a lot of benefits such as –
- Interactive visual tools
- Scaling that makes it easy to begin as levels rise
- In-built tools that enable social communication
- Easy customization
- Flexibility and easy data storage
- Start with zero cost
- Easy Identification of the needs and notification of the changes.
- The progress and status can be observed in the dashboard itself.
64. What are the differences between Jira and Azure DevOps?
- Atlassian Jira is also a well-known application lifecycle management (ALM) tool. It is especially liked by the agile teams.
- It was initially a bug tracking tool and has now grown into a more extensive tool that contains many software development and management tools.
- The main purpose of this tool is to keep things on track while Azure DevOps, on the other hand, not only tracks but extends to building and development as well.
65. What do you mean by roles?
Roles are the type of servers that help us towards achieving a common aim. These are managed as well as loaded as virtual machines.
The three types of roles that Azure provides are:
- Worker Role
- Web role
- VM role
66. What are the different types of backlogs and board options that are available in Azure boards?
There are 3 backlogs and 2 boards available, they are –
- Backlogs are available to manage the work:
67. What do you understand by fault domains?
- They are the logical hardware groups that can share the same power source as well as network. They are used for racking the data centers on-premise.
These fault domains get automatically distributed by the Azure platform when VMs are designed using available sets. This approach limits network outages, physical hardware failures, etc.
68. What do you understand about the Update domains feature?
- They are the logical hardware groups that can be rebooted as well as maintained at the same time. These updated domains get automatically distributed when the VMs are designed using available sets.
This ensures our application instance, as well as the running of the Azure platform, is under periodic maintenance. Only a single order of updates can be rebooted at a time.
69. How can we use Azure Ad applications?
- A secured and simple way is provided to select and connect with web applications by this feature.
- It is similar to the SaaS apps that can also be accessed in Azure and doesn’t require a VPN to change the infrastructure of the network.
70. Define VNet?
The rendering of our cloud network refers to the VNet. Our launched cloud instances get isolated from the remaining resources with the help of VNet.
71. What are system capabilities and user capabilities in the Azure pipeline?
- The self-hosted agent contains a set of capabilities that defines the scope of various capabilities. The name-value pairs are referred to as capabilities.
- They are called system capabilities when they get discovered automatically by the agent software.
- On the other hand, they are called user capabilities when they are defined by us. System capabilities such as operating system name, machine name, and other installed software are detected by the agent software.
72. What is the azure cli command that is used to run the pipeline?
Az pipelines run [-branch]
73. what is a self-hosted agent in the Azure pipeline.
- Self-hosted agents allow us to set up as well as manage jobs on our own. We can opt for self-hosted agents when we want more access to installing dependent software as per our needs and deployments.
- The speed can also be improved by the persistence of machine-level caches and configuration.
74. define Microsoft-hosted agents in the Azure pipeline.
Microsoft agents are responsible for getting the jobs executed. From assigning the resources to installing and maintaining, everything can get done with Microsoft-hosted agents.
75. Define Azure service fabric.
- This distributed systems platform makes it simple for the package, scalability management, deployment, and reliability of microservices. The development and management of the applications of the cloud can be done by this.
- This lets the developers pay more attention to the critical implementation of jobs.
76. what do you know about Azure Redis cache.
- It is an open-source data structure and works as a database and cache. Azure Redis cache is made based on the famous Redis cache of open source.
- Secured access from Azure applications is provided with the help of this feature and the structure of data which are like strings, sets, and hashes along with queries are also maintained by Azure Redis cache.
77) How to create a Git repository in Azure DevOps?
A Git repository can be created in the following ways –
- Open DevOps
- Choose a respective project
- Click on Repos
- Click on Files from Repos
- Click on repositories
- Click on the “New repository” option from the dropdown menu
- Choose the repository type as Git in the panel appeared.
- Give the repository a name
- The “Add a README” checkbox can be unchecked. Otherwise, a readme.txt file will be added.
- Now, click on create button
(The repository will get selected by default once it is created)
78. describe the job role of Azure DevOps engineer.
An Azure DevOps engineer is responsible for designing and implementing a scalable, strong, realistic, and practical cloud solution that would work for the clients.
79. Compare DevOps and agile methodology ?
- DevOps: It is a kind of culture which helps operation teams collaborate and while developing, making the work continual. The output of this process is continuous integration, testing, deployment, development and it scans the entire lifecycle of the software.
- Agile: It is a type of software procedure that concentrates on small, iterative, and the quick delivery of the software along with the feedback from users. This process displays the problems and the gaps between developers and the users.
80. what happens if we do maximum failed attempts of authentication via Azure AD ?
We have more advanced strategies for account lock, that is based on requests of IP addresses and passwords which are entered. By using those advanced strategies we can increase the time of lockout, which seems like an attack.
81. How to find application lists which are pre integrated with AD and their capabilities ?
It has nearly 2,600 applications, which are pre integrated and these applications keep up SSO, that is, single sign-on that allows us to use the credentials of our organization to access apps. They also give automated support for de provisioning and provisioning.
82. How can you automate Testing in the life cycle of DevOps?
Testing is an important part of the process In a DevOps lifecycle. By automating testing, you can speed up the process and make it more efficient.
Some tips that can be followed to automate testing in the DevOps lifecycle:
- Use a tool like Jenkins to automate your tests.
- Set up a continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) pipeline to run your tests automatically.
- Use a testing framework like Selenium to automate your tests.
- Use a tool like sauce labs to run your tests in the cloud.
- Use a tool like LoadRunner to performance test your application.
83. What is the “Shift left to reduce failure” concept in DevOps?
- “Shift left to reduce failure” is a concept in DevOps that suggests that development and testing activities should be shifted to an early stage in the software development life cycle. By doing these activities early, potential problems can be identified and fixed more quickly and easily, preventing them from becoming bigger issues later on.
- There are many benefits to shifting left, including reducing the overall risk of failure, catching errors earlier, and improving communication between development and operations teams. Ultimately, this can help to speed up the software development process and improve the quality of the final product.
84. What do you know about the Blue/Green Deployment Pattern?
- The Blue/Green deployment pattern is a way of reducing downtime and risk when releasing new versions of software.
- With blue/green deployments, you can deploy your software to two identical production environments, called blue and green. Only one of the environments is active at a time, with traffic routed to the active environment.
- When you’re ready to release a new version of your software, you first deploy it to the inactive environment (green). Once it has been deployed and tested, you switch traffic over to the green environment, making it the active environment.
- If there are any issues with the new version, you can quickly switch traffic back to the blue environment. This approach reduces downtime and risk, as there is always a working environment available.
- It also makes it easier to test new software versions, as they can be deployed to the inactive environment first.
85. How to set up a Jenkins job?
- It is a simple process where you have to first create a new job. To do this, click the “New Joblink on the left hand side of the Jenkins dashboard. Then select a job type.
- You will then be required to configure your job. You will see a lot of options that you can set on the “Configure” page.
86. What are the commands used to restart Jenkins manually?
If you need to restart Jenkins manually, there are a few commands that you can use. To restart the Jenkins service, you can use the “service jenkins restart” command.
- If you need to restart the Jenkins server, you can use the “jenkins.restart()” command. And, if you need to restart Jenkins and all its slave nodes, you can use the “restart-all-jnlp-slaves” command.
87. What is the Azure service fabric?
- Azure Service Fabric is a distributed systems platform that makes it easy to build, deploy, and manage scalable and reliable microservices and containers.
- Service Fabric also provides a consistent development and deployment model for all your applications, whether they’re deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or in a hybrid environment.
88. Can Ansible be installed on controlling machines?
Yes, Ansible can be installed on the controlling machine by using the machine nodes that are managed with the help of SSH.
89. Define cloud computing?
It is the use of servers on the internet to “store”, “manage” and “process” data. The difference is, instead of using your own servers, you are using someone else’s servers to do your task, paying them for the amount of time you use it for.
90. Name a few cloud deployment models?
There are three cloud deployment models:
- Public Cloud: The infrastructure is owned by your cloud provider and the server that you are using could be a multi-tenant system.
- Private Cloud: The infrastructure is owned by you or your cloud provider gives you that service exclusively.
- Hybrid Cloud: When you use both Public Cloud, Private Cloud together, it is called Hybrid Cloud.
91. I have some private servers on my premises and I have also distributed some of my workload on the public cloud. What is this architecture called?
- Virtual Private Network
- Private Cloud
- Virtual Private Cloud
- Hybrid Cloud
The answer is Hybrid cloud
92. Define Microsoft Azure and tell me why it is used?
Companies which provide the cloud service are called the Cloud Providers. There are a lot of cloud providers out there, out of them one is Microsoft Azure. It is used for accessing Microsoft’s infrastructure for cloud.
93. Which service in Azure is used to manage resources in Azure?
- Application Insights
- Azure Resource Manager
- Azure Portal
- Log Analytics
Answer: B Azure Resource Manager
- Explanation: Azure Resource Manager is used to “manage” infrastructures which involves a number of azure services. It can be used to deploy, manage and delete all the resources together using a simple JSON script.
94. Which of the following web applications can be deployed with Azure?
- All of the mentioned
Answer: D All of the mentioned
- Explanation: Microsoft also has released SDKs for both Java and Ruby to allow applications written in those languages to place calls to the Azure Service Platform API to the AppFabric Service.
Azure Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced Professional
95. Define Roles and its usage?
- Explanation: Roles are nothing but servers. These servers are managed and load balanced and function as a Platform as a Service virtual machines that work together to achieve a common goal.
There are 3 types of roles in Microsoft Azure:
- Web Role – A web role is basically used to deploy a website, using languages supported by the IIS platform like, PHP, .NET etc. It is configured and customized to run web applications.
- Worker Role – A worker role is more like a help to the Web role, it is used to execute background processes unlike the Web Role which is used to deploy the website.
- VM Role – The VM role is used by a user to schedule tasks and other windows services. This role can be used to customize the machines on which the web and worker role is running.
96. A _________ role is a virtual machine instance running Microsoft IIS Web server that can accept and respond to HTTP or HTTPS requests.
Answer: A. Web
- Explanation: There are no roles such as Server or Client roles. Also, Worker roles can only communicate with Azure Storage or through direct connections to clients.
97. What do you mean by Network Security Groups?
- A network security group (NSG) contains a list of Access Control List (ACL) rules that allow or deny network traffic to subnets, NICs, or both.
- NSGs can be associated with either subnets or individual NICs connected to a subnet. When an NSG is associated with a subnet, the ACL rules apply to all the VMs in that subnet.
- The traffic to an individual NIC can also be restricted by associating an NSG directly to a NIC.
98. can scale sets work with Azure availability sets?
- Yes. A scale set is an implicit availability set with 5 fault domains and 5 update domains. Scale sets of more than 100 VMs span multiple placement groups, and are equivalent to multiple availability sets.
- An availability set of VMs can exist in the same virtual network as a scale set of VMs. A common configuration is to put control node VMs (which often require unique configuration) in an availability set and put data nodes in the scale set.
99. What do you mean by break-fix issue?
Technical problems are called break-fix issues, it is an industry term which refers to “work involved in supporting a technology when it fails in the normal course of its function, that requires intervention by a support organization to be restored to working order”.
100. Where can I find a list of applications that are pre-integrated with Azure AD and their capabilities?
Azure AD has around 2600 pre-integrated applications. All pre-integrated applications support single sign-on (SSO). The SSO lets you use your organizational credentials to access your apps and some of the applications also support automated provisioning and de-provisioning.